Category - Q&A

Q&A: Help! My Puppy Won’t Take “NO” for an Answer.

My 5 month old Westie is in to everything. Nothing is safe if he can reach it with his teeth; glasses, remote, loves anything paper, etc. There’s nothing he won’t grab.” NO” doesn’t work nor does spray or time out. If you try to push him away, he’ll nip your hands. We’ve moved everything we could at least three feet from the floor and leave nothing on end tables. Sometimes, we forget then the fun begins with “catch me if you can”. He has lots of toys which he does play with frequently but walks around just looking for anything to snatch from the time he gets up. Help!!! ~Catherine 

Hello Cathrine! Let me sum this up if I can, then address each aspect.

You have a 5-month-old West Highland Terrier puppy that has a chewing issue, possible slight resource guarding (potential aggression when taking his ‘resources- toys, food, etc), and likes to play ‘chase’.

Quick Note: Before reading any of the following, avoid any physical punishment corrections with your puppy. Absolutely no uncomfortable aversives before adulthood. Now that that is out of the way-

Puppy Proof
If your pup gets into everything, the first thing you want to do (and it sounds like you’re on the right track) puppy proof any area your westie can access. Make sure to place any electrical cords or small, hard choking hazards out of reach- especially important!

5 months is past the teething stage, so at least you have that working for you.

Puppy Energy
First, you have an energetic breed for a small dog, and puppies that age are very high energy in general. I’m sure your westie becomes bored very easily. I know exactly what that is like! Puppies can seem like a full-time job.

About an hour a day of exercise is recommended for an adult West Highland Terrier, but puppies are a whole new ball game. Don’t just stop at walks, if you walk your pup. Provide individual attention and enrichment activities. You can follow this link for some fun possibilities, or this one.

If you tire your pup out this won’t be as much of an issue. Again, I know very well how hard it can be to tire a puppy!

Lasting Toys
If your westie is easily bored, have you tried longer lasting toys? You could try the occasional ‘Kong filled with frozen peanut butter, yogurt, or banana mixture’ treats. He’ll have to work at getting the contents out of the Kong, and even more so after a night in the freezer.

Bite Inhibition Training
Puppies learn to control their bite pressure with their littermates in those first few weeks of play. Consider this- one pup clamps down a bit too hard, the other pup yelps and scurries away; play stops. This is the last thing the biter wants- he wants the game to continue- so he doesn’t bite so hard next time.

But this isn’t enough for you. You want him to avoid your skin altogether. Also called ‘soft mouth’ training, if you want to look it up, this method simulates that puppy play behavior exactly!

Kind of let out a small yelp next time your pup bites at you like you’re actually injured. If you are playing a game and your westie is focused on the game, not the toy, immediately stop playing. If the game is what your pup wants, he will learn to avoid your skin if he wants it to continue.

If you can safely, take away whatever toy he is playing with. Don’t ‘try’ to take it, take it. If you can’t take the toy safely, then don’t try. By successfully using his teeth, your westie could learn those teeth can solve problems. That is the last thing you want.

You can resume playing 20 or so minutes later.

Resource Guarding
From what you’ve described, this is my biggest fear for you and your little one. Countless larger dogs end up suffering because handlers don’t know how to cope with this behavior, which can turn from innocent play biting to actual aggression biting.

Many dogs feel a natural instinct to guard their possessions (food, toys), and can react aggressively if you try to threaten those possessions. Thankfully, your westie is a small breed, and resource guarding is easy to treat!

If your pup was protective of his food, you would offer a more valuable treat when coming around that food. Your pup would learn that you aren’t a threat to his food and he doesn’t need to fear you taking it away, but rather your presence means good things!

Reward Success, Don’t Punish Failures
If you’re having trouble getting that object out of his mouth, teach the ‘drop it’ command followed by rewarding with a treat. Eventually, your pup will learn that reward is coming when he relinquishes the toy upon your request.

The Chase
This is a mistake I made many years ago with a Jack Rusell/Border Collie mix, so I understand exactly what you are going through! If you chase your pup, ‘the chase’ itself could become a game more fun than any treat or toy he has. The entire point for him is to get you to chase him.

At the time, I was caring for two very high energy, prey driven breeds rolled into one. The combination of personality traits made this especially troubling. No matter the value of the food, he would rather run. I could have tossed a prime rib and it wouldn’t have mattered!

Thankfully, your situation probably isn’t so extreme. The most valuable lesson I can teach from that is -Don’t Chase. Don’t play the game. Lure your pup to you with some type of food reward if you can. If you must chase, make sure it ends abruptly and your pup doesn’t have time to find enjoyment.

Crate Training
Finally, I would always heavily recommend crate training for absolutely any puppy, but especially one that loves to put anything in his mouth.

Q&A: Help! Our Dog is Afraid of Riding in the Car!

Hello, Our rescue dog is terrified to get into a car or truck. He’s 8 months old and a Aussy/Lab mix. How can we get him more comfortable with riding in the car? Thanks you. ~Lana K.

Your 8-month-old rescue is terrified of the truck, and you’re trying to make him feel secure? Don’t worry, I can help! The actual training won’t start until step three below.

Step One: Ask yourself ‘why’ your rescue is terrified of the truck. Is it loud noise? Poor suspension? Previous accident? Or perhaps a negative experience with a former owner? Treating the problem will be easier once you can figure out why it is happening.

Step Two: Whenever you can, relate positive experiences to the truck! Plenty of praise, food, or other pleasant incentives! You want your pup to associate good things with your car rides, not fear.

Never punish your pup; relate only positivity. Unless absolutely necessary, try not to force your puppy into something he is afraid of.

Step Three: Start small (and I mean small). At first, just try walking your pup around the truck, showering him with praise, and rewarding him with treats. You are solely creating positive associations while not overwhelming him too early. The principle is called counter conditioning via desensitization if you want to read more.

Step Four: After doing this a few times, preferably after a few days, you can help your pup into the truck. Sit there for a little in your driveway, play with your pet in the back, etc. Reward your puppy for getting into the truck.

Once he is comfortable with this, you can go for short drives down the street, or around the block. It’s important to move slowly, gradually, letting your pet adjust in his own time. I completely understand why that might not always be possible, so there is another option during those first days.

Medication Option
Your veterinarian can prescribe calming medication, or at the very least discuss that option n depth with you. Even something as simple as Benadryl can have a mild sedative effect and make those rides easier.

I would always suggest discussing any medications with your veterinarian to rule out any potential complications, but the dosage is 1mg. Per pound of bodyweight. This is an exception; many human medications we wouldn’t think twice about can cause harm. If you check the active ingredients, it should be 100% Diphenhydramine

Q&A: How to stop my dog from barking at bedtime?

Hello…My dog, who is now 1-1/2 has started barking at bedtime. In the past, we have let her sleep on her dog bed downstairs and we retire to the second floor. This worked until 1 month ago when she started barking at the gate at the bottom of the stairs. This can go on for an hour. What should I do? ~Mary T.

It sounds like you’re in a noisy puppy predicament! Before I get into the explanations, let me say barking is as natural for a dog as yelling for us.

So you say your 1.5-year-old puppy (older puppy) has just begun barking, where she hadn’t before. I’ve never raised a young pup that would bark incessantly either; not until they reached young adulthood. It almost seems they begin barking with confidence! If you’re looking at a behavioral training approach, you’ll have to understand why she is barking exactly.

Possibility One: Barking can become a learned behavior if your pup figures out she will eventually get what she wants. There is little difference between a puppy barking at the gate downstairs for an hour and a puppy whining inside her crate for an hour because she doesn’t like the confinement- if that is the reason.

This is only one possible answer, but the training method would involve ignoring her continuously until eventually she figures barking is useless; she won’t get what she wants. If this is the case, someone would have likely given in and let her upstairs at one point.

Possibility Two: She is in some sort of physical pain, or frightened about something at night. She may become extra anxious at night when alone, while your company provides comfort. Increased anxiety in the evenings or when secluded tends to be more common in aging dogs, but consider speaking with your veterinarian next checkup just to rule out any possible medical causes.

Your vet might suggest medication to assist her sleeping, but try to exhaust all other avenues before going that route with a puppy.

Possibility Three: Barking, or increased alertness, is a very common trait in her breed (depending on her breed). For example, Shetland Sheepdogs, several Collies, or Great Pyrenees were selectively bred for their alertness. Most owners will tell you they will bark at absolutely anything unusual they don’t like. Your girl might also have a very high prey drive, although this might not be your case if she just barks at the stairwell.

The solution here would be to gently acknowledge any distraction (while trying to limit any possible distractions), showing your girl you have everything in control, you’re perfectly calm, and there is nothing to worry about. I can’t guarantee she will stop if this is the reason.

My Advice:
Without knowing your dog or particular situation, it sounds like you just need to remain calm and ignore her (or try to) until she learns she can’t get what she wants by barking. Don’t acknowledge it, and eventually, the barking should stop as she gains comfort in her solitude.

You might also compromise, and make room for her crate (assuming you’ve crate trained her) in your bedroom. If you do that, it may be even more difficult to get her to stay downstairs alone.

Q&A: Help! Our dog doesn’t get the “doggie doorbell”!

Our Shichon ( Shih-tzu/Bichon mix) has been using Paws2Go ( basically a doorbell to say she needs to go to the bathroom) for a couple of weeks now. She is 3 months old. We have followed the training guide , and have her to the point she presses it when we say the cue word potty ,but it seems she only wants to press it when we are right next to her. We have a 4 story town-home so she needs to go down a flight of stairs to press it by the front door. We aren’t sure if she’s scared to go down to the foyer ( she’s a Velcro dog – won’t leave us) and also fear she isn’t associating it with going to the bathroom since she has peed in the foyer right before we are going out. I’m not sure if we should keep it down in the foyer or put It on the main level where she is more comfortable .We can’t figure out what’s not going right!   ~Mary

Hi Mary, glad that you wrote in to us. It seems like you have a fairly common problem at your hand. If I am reading it correctly, you have having issues with the following three points:

Getting your dog to be trained using the Paws2Go device

Unsure if the dog is scared to go down to the foyer

Dog peeing in the foyer

It does look like the puppy is not properly house trained yet. There are several reasons why the dog is still peeing around the house. There are plenty guides that you can find online. Try reading a guide from here.

As for the device itself, it is quite common for owners to have issues when trying to get the dog to get accustomed to it. If you follow the guide closely, you will be able to get the dog to respond correctly. But given that you mentioned the dog only press it when you are right next to her, this could be a result of you doing things wrongly, unknowingly. You can try to restart the training process and get the dog to respond as per what you wanted.

As for the issue about your dog wanting to head down to the foyer, we will recommend that you restrict the dog’s movement as their body is still trying to develop the muscles it needs to function. Going down the flight of stairs might be detrimental to the developmental process.

For starters, we recommend you to carry the dog down at fixed timings in the day to conduct the training. At least you will be limiting the amount of variables for the dog to associate itself with. Also, since the puppy is still young, try not to be too harsh on her, eh. Show her more tender loving care during the training process, and it can help speed up the training too.

Hope the above helps!

Q&A: Why is my dog suddenly scared at the park?

Hello, I have a small dog who has somehow become scared when we run through the park. She is a small dog, and this never use to happen. I’m not sure of the cause. Is there something I can do? Thanks, Mary.

Hi Mary, thank you so much for dropping us this query. I understand the frustration and worry that you are feeling must be horrible, for you to drop us a message here does show how much your dog means to you.

While it is normal for some dogs to be scared or terrified when heading out, it will not be normal in your dog’s case since she used to love the runs till recently. You are somewhat right that is can be due to some scares around the vicinity, but there might be some underlying issues that might be causing the issue.

From your dog’s case, it could be a negative experience that she had when she ran in the forest. Also, did you check on your dog to see if she had suffered any injury? It is very possible that she is refusing to head out because she suffered an injury while out in the forest and that is causing her anxiety.

During this period of time, if your dog refuses to head out and tremble, you should not try to force them to head out, or try to carry the dog and place her in the forest as these will cause the furkid to develop a negative feeling about the place. Rather, you should find ways to desensitize her negative feelings towards the forest.

For starters, you could try to bring her out for regular walks right outside of your house. This does serve two purposes.

To observe for injury: you can check the way she is walking to see if she is limping or not.

To check for trauma: If the negative incident is causing the dog to tremble even during the normal walks, then it does require you to approach the problem differently. In the above two cases, if you notice that the dog is limping, or her gait is unusual, you should bring her to the vet immediately for attention as there is an underlying issue that is causing your dog to limp.

To address the trauma issue, the whole idea of bringing her out for walks around the vicinity of your house is to check if she is afraid of walking, or just afraid of walking in the forest. If your dog is ok with walking outside of the house, then we can more or less deduce that the root cause of the issue lies in the forest.

It is worthwhile to note, that if the anxiety or fear is cause by an external problem, then thankfully the issue can be solved. All you need to do is to show love and encouragement to the dog. While you should not be forcing them outdoors, you can slowly desensitize the situation for them. This means bringing her out for walks in the nearby parks and letting her run, albeit on a leash this time round so that she can enjoy the outdoors again. The whole idea of putting her on a leash is so that you can control her movements, since it can be a possibility that she could be injured or attacked by a wild animal during the runs in the forest.
Hope the above helps!

Why does my dog poop in the middle of the night?

I have a two year old yellow lab. He was sleeping through the night up until he was about 8 months old. Then suddenly he started needing to go out to poop in the middle of the night. He wakes us, immediately poops and goes right back to bed. I don’t want to ignore him, he clearly had to go out. He doesn’t have accidents in the house. I am wondering how to get him to make it through the night? We feed him breakfast at 7:30 am and dinner at 6 pm. He gets an evening walk around 7 pm and we take him out before bed at about 11 pm every night. Every once in a while he doesn’t need to go out and sleeps through the night – probably about 3 times a month, I haven’t noticed any difference about those days from the others. ~Susan

Well, the first thing you want to do is to develop a set schedule. You said this began at 8 months, so it has been over a year? Your lab is probably already very accustomed to going to the bathroom at night, so it may take some time to adjust, but adhere to your schedule. By gradually moving that nighttime break later towards the morning, little by little every night, your dog will adjust.

At eight months, your puppy was still growing and his bladder hadn’t fully developed. At two years old, your boy should be able to hold his bladder throughout the night. Again, he may just be accustomed to this schedule that allowed nighttime breaks and take time to adjust.

If you decide to begin feeding your pet once a day, do it in the mornings. If you feed twice a day, try mornings and afternoons, maybe as soon as you get home from work, or earlier in the afternoon if you can. You can also consider a smaller amount in the evenings. Remember to stick to your feeding and bathroom schedules!

Labs have a tendency to overeat, and eat quickly, which is why two feedings is a better idea. You can purchase special sectioned off bowls at most pet stores that make it impossible for a dog to consume their food rapidly.

Consider crating at night. Dogs will try not to eliminate in confined places, or where they sleep, making the dog crate a very useful potty training tool! 

Finally, take your boy in for a checkup, and explain the situation to your veterinarian. I’m about 90% confident you aren’t dealing with a medical issue, but it’s always wise to be positive.

Q&A: Why has my dog stopped using the doggy door?

My dog is about a year and a half old and has just recently in the last few weeks started peeing around the house. We have a doggie door, he knows how to use it, he has been using it for months so I’m not sure what is causing him to pee inside again when he has been potty trained for about a year now. Want to know if there are any tips or tricks to get him to stop doing this! Thank you! ~Alexis

Hello Alexis, I believe I can offer some insight!

Solution One
This is pretty straightforward. Rather than explain the process, I’m going to refer you to a fantastic article on Potty Training. You can do further research, but the training principles are generally the same across the board with most professional trainers. As long as you adhere to these guidelines, you shouldn’t have any problems!

But you said your dog is already trained, meaning there may be something else at work here. You may also simply need to reinforce training.

The goal would be the same as before. You need to give your dog a reason to want to make the effort to go potty outside, rather than just anywhere.

Solution Two
You didn’t name the breed, but certain toy breeds can be notoriously difficult to potty train. Also, dogs sometimes urinate out of excitement or anxiety. Did anything change recently about your living environment? If so, this might be the cause.

Solution Three
Intact males, or females, will often mark in order to leave scent identifiers for other dogs to pick up on. Again, if someone or something new has recently entered your family environment…

Solution Four
There may be a medical concern behind your pup’s urination problems. It would be a good idea to take him you see your vet for a checkup.

Q&A: How to deal with house guest’s dog?

My brother and his dog (7 yr old male part Chihuahua, part Maltese, part Yorkie) are currently living with me. Mostly this has gone well but sometimes the dog bites me and not in a playful way. Once was when I was trying to take off his leash, so I just stopped taking off his leash. At least two of the times now have been when the dog is sitting on my lap and does not want to get up and I do. I’m wondering what to do about this, and how to interact with the dog after it happens. Should I not let him on my lap anymore? Are there things that I can change to make this less likely to happen? Thanks, Rai

Ironically, many people think Pitbulls or Rottweilers are the most aggressive breeds overall, but that is far from the truth. Time and time again, smaller breeds like the ones you mentioned score as some of the lowest on the ATTS Temperament Test, whereas the ‘Bully Breeds’ that have such a negative reputation actually score quite high. This is often a combination of poor genetics, poor breeding practices, and lack of training when the dog is young.

If the pup learns he can get the desired result by biting, he’ll continue to bite. You can do a few things here to avoid that.

1. Visit the veterinarian, just in case, to rule out any pain or discomfort that might cause the dog to react when you move. This does happen more often than you might think.

2. Ignore the dog, don’t acknowledge this seeking behavior. Act like the dog is a ghost or not actually present during these times.

3. Distract the pup with a toy, treat, or something he likes. This will cure the immediate issue, but may not help with the long term problem.

4. Hierarchy. I don’t like to recommend ‘Alpha’ behavior or establishing dominance; 90% of the time that is actually the opposite of what you want to do (despite what you may have heard). But, Chihuahuas sometimes can mistake themselves for the ‘leader’ of the house, of more important than other members, which might be contributing to your problem. This happens with other breeds on occasion too, but it is rarer with a positive upbringing and good environment.

Not to say your environment raising the little one wasn’t good; small breeds sometimes don’t ‘adjust’ in the same manner as larger dogs.

5. I have read many times that Chihuahuas lack the ability to perceive size, which perfectly explains their lack of caution. I can’t tell you for 100% that is true, but it is a supported theory. Your mix may suffer from this issue. To deal, you may want to use a more assertive manner.

Body Language
This is probably the largest suggestion I have. Body language is important; dogs read ours very well. Act assertive, don’t flinch, and try to give off an air of authority. Don’t be aggressive, but try to act confident, like the little one doesn’t bother you at all.

If you need to take extreme measures, I would suggest talking with your veterinarian, or the dog’s vet, about mood altering medication (before re-homing becomes an option). The vet will also rule out any possible medical issue, pain or discomfort that could be causing this behavior.

Q&A: How to deal with an aggressive small dog?

dog-jumpingMy dog (4yrs, pit terrier- about 45 pounds) came from a large yard to a town-home community late last year. She’s acclimated fairly well to the leash/harness and it’s training after some struggles.

We have a neighboring home that has two dogs — a larger pit bull type and a tiny toysized dog. This neighbor frequently lets his tiny dog roam (without the owner being around) and has shown aggression to not only my dog but me as well when we encounter each other.

When I’m lucky enough to see the tiny dog in advance, I try to pick up mine for her safety. However, there are times Dixie struggles down and attempts to protect me before I get her away from the situation as quickly as possible. After these encounters, my dog is very mopey and disinterested in her toys or even sitting next to us on the couch. The welfare of my dog is my highest priority. How do I handle this in the future when I encounter this dog on one of our walks? ~Cassandra

Hello! I love all subjects related to dog socialization, because I think it is a very important subject. Let’s see if I can help you!

So, first of all, though I love all dogs and try to understand their behavior no matter the breed, I honestly can’t think of a single toy breed off hand that was solely bred for its intelligence. In fact, many experts say some small breeds aren’t able to perceive size, so don’t actually understand the danger they put themselves in.

On top of poor breeding practices, many owners of these small breeds (Chihuahuas are notorious) never bother to try to socialize their dogs at a young age. I can easily see exactly what you are talking about; I’ve both seen personally and heard many stories of these smaller dogs running right up on animals 30 times their size and acting very aggressive. Understand this isn’t ultimately the small dog’s fault; it should have been the owner’s responsibility to socialize their pet, or control it if they can’t.

What You Can Do
You probably can’t control how this small dog acts, since he isn’t yours. If I had this problem, I wouldn’t think twice about talking to the owner. Be polite and courteous about the situation, no matter how furious your neighbor’s lack of responsibility makes you, because that way your neighbor is most likely to listen to what you have to say.

Ask your neighbor to please keep their dog off of your property.
You might suggest having a fence installed. 3-4 ft. chicken wire is all that is needed for most toy breeds, and not that expensive.
Politely explain the danger the neighbor’s dog places himself in by confronting other dogs.
If nothing else works, you might threaten to contact animal control. This should get your neighbor to step up. Though this may mean the smaller dog ends up being sheltered, it is preferable to death. Hopefully it doesn’t come to that. This way, you also have a record of having contacted animal control, if you ever do end up facing legal matters.

No pet owner should simply let their dogs roam around un-restricted; that is very irresponsible! Other animals aside, what if they get hit by a car? What if they end up chasing other animals and run off? What kind of pet owner allows their dogs to roam free with so many possibly dangerous outcomes?

Your Dog
If these two dogs end up fighting physically, my worry for you would be about the legal repercussions you and your pet may face if your mix ends up killing the smaller dog. Look up the laws and pet regulations in your district. Be sure you are prepared if your fears do come true, and capable of handling the outcomes. You also have to worry about your neighbor’s larger dog reacting in defense of the smaller.

Next time you see your vet, try asking for advice. Also, make sure your dog is updated on all vaccinations so she doesn’t end up contracting anything from these other two. If your dog is leash reactive around these other two, there are good YouTube videos available for free on how to handle the situation.

In the End
You can’t ultimately control what your neighbors do, and can’t be responsible for their dogs too. But you can prepare yourself to handle any outcome you might face. Try to be extra vigilant on your walks, and avoid that area or walk the other direction if you need. ~Cassandra

Q&A: Help! My dog is now barking at children!

teach-your-dog-to-sitI have a one year old boxer/red heeler mix named Abby. We’ve had her since she was three months old. At four months we started taking her to the dog park daily and she never showed any fear of adults or kids. As she got older, around 8 or 9 months, she started barking out the windows when people walked by, but nothing too severe. She is now a year old and we’ve recently moved. Her barking inside the house got much worse after moving, but with training it is slowly improving. Where she used to bark once or twice but then greet strangers at the door, we now make her go to her crate when someone knocks at the door because she is so insistent with her barking.

The real problem, though, is that she now barks at kids. A few times people have brought their kids to the dog park and Abby goes nuts. She won’t get too close to them, but runs a circle around them, barking so fast it becomes a howl, almost like she is baying at them. She never barks at adults or dogs outside our home, and inside the home she is never so amped up that I can’t get her attention with treats, but when she sees a kid, she won’t listen to commands or pay attention to treats. I know the obvious answer is to carefully desensitize her to kids over time, but we don’t have kids or know anyone who does. Having just moved, we hardly know anyone at all. She only rarely runs into kids when they come to the dog park. I’m afraid though that if she continues to go without socialization with kids, her fear will get worse and eventually turn into aggression. ~Lisa Taylor

This behavior could be partially due to your pup’s instincts. Australian Cattle Dogs (Red Heelers) are very energetic dogs, known to sometimes ‘nip’ at or try to herd family members in some direction. To several herding breeds, in fact, the line between children and small animals can sometimes blur a bit. Without observing, if I had to guess, I would say this might be impacting your little one’s behavior.

Others might say your dog may have developed some sort of anxiety related to children, but I would lean toward the above explanation a bit more.

As far as barking as strangers walk by or knock at your door, that is very natural behavior for many breeds, but especially one bred to herd with a known protective instinct. You mentioned ‘fear’; are you sure it is fear she has toward other children?
It’s impressive that you mentioned desensitization. That’s exactly what I would suggest, or at least slow socialization. So, you don’t have any relatives or friends with kids, but you could try:

Signing up for ‘obedience’ classes. I personally think they are better for building social skills than anything obedience related, but they do teach a few useful skills.

Talk to neighbors. Ask your neighbors to hand your dog a treat that you give them on your dog walks. This will help teach your pup strangers (or kids) aren’t a threat to fear.

Building Social Skills: I don’t know of any other way to adapt a dog to new situations, people, and kids without introducing and socializing them with kids. Socialization is actually one of the most important things you’ll ever train into any dog. It’s important to start this as early as possible! At one, your pup is nearing adulthood; you don’t have a lot of time left before this becomes a more difficult process. At most dog parks, there is an area for small dogs, and an area for larger dogs. You could try the small one so your dog is easier to get ahold of, and purchasing a harness with ‘don’t pet’ signed on it. For your walks, ‘Gentle Leaders’ are good training tools to discourage pulling.