Category - Dog Training

How to Deal With an Easily Distracted Dog

If you notice that your dog is easily distracted by noise or by people, especially when walking on a leash, then you might have a serious problem that needs immediate rectification. This is because if your dog is easily distracted, there is a high chance that it will take off in the direction of the noise. This can be a potential problem, since the dog might fall into ditch or even into on coming traffic. As such, there is a need to rectify the issue so that you can protect the dog.
Here’s how to get dog to focus on you…

The best way to stop a dog from being distracted is actually by training them! By training them, you will be able to command the hyper dog to react to your command. However, when it comes to training these hyper dogs, the owners will always notice that it can be difficult trying to get the dog to focus. The dog will get excessively energized because of the objects that are not a usual sight in the house. When the excessive energy builds up in them. It will actually cause the dog to lose focus and such as such it will be in a state of chaos!Indeed, there are just a few main reasons why the dog simply cannot focus!

Focus: They prefer the random animal running across the street than you.

Relationship: The dog does not trust you and hence have a lousy relationship with you.

Communication: You are speaking Greek to the dog and she simply cannot understand you.
If you are able to solve all three problems, your hyperactive dog will be able to focus on you whenever you call for it. And the best way to do it is via a proper training session.

To do so, you can rely on your usual commands such as stop or stay to help the dog to focus their attention onto you. If the dog responds to your command, you should reward it with a treat! Otherwise, you can use a firm voice to voice out the command while using your finger and point at the dog. This will help the dog to focus its attention onto your finger. Eventually, your dog will start to respond to your commands.

Of course, if the dog is still restless, then it will mean that having multiple short training sessions will be useful. Also, you should include a healthy dosage of patience so that your dog receives the best form of positive training from you. Note that you should not vent your anger on your favourite pet at all times as it will be detrimental to the training process.

To wrap things up, all dogs can be trained to focus on you rather than to be distracted by random objects that appears. It does take you some time and effort to train the dog so that they can respond to your commands. In time to come, your dog will stop running away from you just because of the random animal that appears in front of their eyes!

5 Tips to Understand Your Dog Better

Familiarize Yourself with Canine Body Language

Believe it or not, a dog can convey, in less than a second, the same thoughts and feelings it might take a human several minutes or even hours to voice! Though dogs do bark, whimper, or emit other vocal sounds, they are extremely adept at both reading and conveying visual cues. Your pet can probably tell exactly how you are feeling at any given time just by reading your body language, and you aren’t even the same species.

Teach Hand Signals

Because of this, learning the meanings behind a dog’s visual signals, and developing ‘hand signals’ yourself, is much more effective than trying to teach your pet the meanings behind your human speech or commands. It’s ironic, since that is the exact mistake the vast majority of pet owners make!

Learn to Recognize subtle, Split-Second Changes in Appearance

Because they aren’t encumbered by lengthy human speech, dogs are able to express their feelings very quickly. At times, this can seem almost instantaneous to the human eye! Learning to recognize these rapid shifts can’t just help improve your training, but help you recognize potential problems (ex. confrontations) fast enough in order to prevent them.

Learn How ‘a Dog Learns’, and What Drives Him

Many years ago, early in dog training history, we as owners were taught it was best to force an animal to submit to our desires, and correction was only effective if it was done as a means of punishment through ‘heavy handed’ techniques. After all, this makes perfect sense from a human’s perspective, right?

Today, the majority of educated dog trainers will tell you to do the exact opposite in ‘most’ training scenarios. Instead of causing a dog to fear the outcome if he doesn’t perform the way you want, it’s better to convince a dog to perform for you because he wants the reward he will get. Whether they are treats, toys, a game of ‘tug’, or simple praise, certain incentives are better ‘drives’ than others.

Research Dog Training Terms

At first, words like ‘operant conditioning’ or ‘desensitization’ can seem like a foreign language. Once you actually do understand exactly what the different kinds of conditioning are, what ‘baiting’ or ‘bridge stimulus’ means, or the importance of a reinforcer, a whole new world will open up to you!

Of course there are several more terms, but the point is these psychological terms will help you learn exactly what works best, how your dog ‘learns’, and why a certain technique will work much better for you than others. The best thing is- they aren’t difficult to learn!

Understand Your Dog’s Normal Behavior

If you want to know when your dog is trying to tell you something, you’ll need to be able to recognize shifts in behavior and body language. To understand and recognize differences, you’ll first need to be able to understand your pet’s ‘base, normal behavior’. All you have to do is watch out for changes in this baseline!

Tips for Training Territorial Dogs

It’s understandable that some dogs are just really hyper and energetic when they’re in the backyard, and some are simply protective of their turf. But if they’re always in high alert, there could be something wrong, and it has to be dealt with before they become aggressive and attack people! You don’t want guests to be scared of your dog or your dog attacking anyone, would you?

Why are some dogs territorial? There are some dogs who are more aggressive genetically. That’s why there are dog breeds perfect for guarding and other breeds that are more suitable for company and family. It’s because of their guarding instincts that they’ve been dubbed man’s best friend. But some can get too carried away and might even be aggressive toward family members when they’re protecting things that matter to them—treats, toys, humans, and territory.

Territorial behavior is dangerous, but not entirely hopeless. These pups can be trained to completely control their aggressiveness. A rule of thumb would be to focus on the “Quiet” command, basic obedience commands, recall, and techniques to reduce anxiety. To prepare your dog for the training, here are some supplies you might need to get:

A good quality dog crate
A sturdy pet gate
Good treats (go for the healthy kind of treats)
A long sturdy leash

Here are a few things to train your territorial dog:

Refresh basic obedience commands. It all boils down to the obedience of the dog. You need to work on your dog’s obedience if you want to tame him. The usual “Sit” and “Stay” commands falls under here and are commonly used as a way to control your dog in tense scenarios. You can use this when you have to get something from the door or are expecting guests—tell them to sit and stay.

If this doesn’t work yet, separate Fido from company using a pet gates or a crate. Even if they’ve been trained in the past, doing so again will be a nice way to bond with your dog. Don’t overdo it; limit training to five to ten minutes every day, and offer treats when they perform great.

Don’t give in. One of the common mistakes most pawrents do is give in whenever the dog annoys them so much. They might act cute and give you the puppy-dog eyes, but giving them that piece of chicken leg you’re holding won’t do any good. They might get aggressive if you don’t give them what they want, and they might growl or bark for it.

This kind of habit makes them think they are entitled to treats whenever, wherever, and this behavior will keep on coming since it always guarantees food. You can give small commands and maybe even have them go “down” for a while before letting them eat dinner. Teach them to work for their food!

Total recall. Does Fido turn or look at you when they hear their name, or does he ignore you? If the latter, then it’s high time to teach him recall, which teaches your doggo to come to you when called. This is quite useful for dogs who tend to find themselves in troublesome situations. You can start somewhere small, like inside your own home, and make sure you reward the dog if they get it right. A reward system is especially effective for dogs, and it will make them look forward to being called.

Before you can move somewhere else, make sure your dog is always responsive to its name. If you want to try it outdoors, make sure the leash can be extended and is sturdy enough so your dog doesn’t break it or you can stop your dog on time if needed.

Calm your dog. Dogs being aggressive doesn’t always mean they’re violent; they might be extremely nervous because of certain triggers. It can be as simple as a sound of a car dashing past or as overwhelming as being in a crowded place.

Isolating a nervous dog and feeding them somewhere peaceful and quiet might help. If your doggo is the nervous type, you might want to invest in a dog gate so you can safely keep Fido away when there are guests. Visit the vet for some advice about your dog’s anxiety. There are certain pet vests and gear that can also help them calm down.

Silent treatment. Dogs bark when they feel like a trespasser is in their territory, and it can scare off some guests. Teach them the command “Silent” or “Quiet” to calm them down. You can start inside the house and introduce different distractions and noises while saying the cue word you prefer. This can help them calm down whenever you say the command.

Desensitize. This can only happen if you have trained your dog basic obedience and anxiety control. Desensitizing can help promote a healthier and calmer reaction to past triggers. But never rush them or punish them—this will only make their anxiety worse—and be patient with their development. Provide rewards if they have done a good job.

While these steps seem daunting and overwhelming for pet parents, it actually has good benefits and might help you in your and dog’s everyday life. It will make it easier for you and your pet to cope with a stressful scenario and maybe even mold the pup into a better version of themselves!

How to Teach Your Dog to be Calm

Does your dog have an anxiety problem? Does your pet seem unusually nervous, jumpy or agitated? If you’re at a complete loss, looking for answers wherever you can find them, don’t worry! The basic guidelines listed below will help you well on your way to a calmer pet!

Step One: Identify the Cause
Before you can even begin to properly treat any unwanted dog behavior, whether it be anxiety or something else, you’ll need to figure out the ‘why’. What exactly is causing your pet to feel the way he does? What changed in his environment? Once these questions are answered, you’ll have a much easier time treating the problem without fumbling around in the dark.

Step Two: Exercise
In most cases, hyperactivity is simply a result of too much energy. If a dog isn’t given an outlet for that energy, he can become destructive, run ‘zoomies’ around your house, or perform a number of other unwanted behaviors. For example, Siberian Huskies, a breed with a near unlimited energy level, have been known to dig holes, jump fences or even become a threat to other small animals if not exercised.

Take walks
Work on agility training
Play fetch, hide & seek, or tracking games
Visit the dog park
Invite other dogs over for a play date
Consider obedience/dog/puppy classes
Provide plenty of interesting toys to play with.

Step Three: Behavioral Training
Ignore attention seeking behavior. For example, if your dog jumps on visiting company, he is seeking acknowledgement from them. One of the best ways to cope with that particular type of behavior isn’t to correct the dog, but to turn your back to him, completely ignoring the pup and pretending he isn’t there. If you don’t acknowledge him, eventually he’ll learn his attention seeking behavior isn’t working.

Counter Conditioning & Positive Reinforcement
Teaching skills like ‘sit’ and ‘stay’ can be rewarded with something the dog enjoys, like treats. If your pup doesn’t like to sit still, try offering an incentive!

Keep Emotions in Check
Dogs judge a situation by the reactions of their human owners constantly, almost certainly more than you think. Yelling, frequent crying or other excess displays of emotion serve only to increase your pet’s anxiety.

Eliminate Distractions
A loud, busy environment with loads of noisy kids running around, crowds of people, or other animals playing, for example, will make it all the more difficult to calm your pet. It is much easier to keep your furry one calm in a calm situation. The same rule applies with dog training in general, and is valued by most professional trainers.
Step Four: Seek Medical Attention
Sometimes, a dog’s anxiety level becomes so extreme, he is at risk for harming himself or others. If nothing else seems to work, you’ll want to talk to your veterinarian, and discuss the need for an accredited animal behaviorist.

If it is a medical issue causing your pup’s strange behavior, your vet can help. The might even prescribe mood altering medications for your pet, in order to calm the animal and prevent injury.

How to deal with “Leash Reactivity”

Imagine the following scenario. You’re happily walking your dog. He’s trotting beside you, sniffing everything he possibly can. The sun is shining, the birds are singing, and everything seems perfect! Suddenly, your dog sees Mr. Hairy Pawtter, the front neighbor’s Poodle. His body becomes tense and he immediately starts barking like a maniac. You tell him to be quiet, but it’s useless; he’s now lunging and growling. As you try to walk away, feeling embarrassed and angry, people stare at you, judging your misbehaved, unruly dog. As soon as Mr. Hairy Pawtter is out of sight, your dog returns to his sniffing duties. Why does he have to hate other dogs? Why does he have to act like he wants to kill them all?

Leash reactivity can be a complex behavior. First, we need to make the distinction between aggression and reactivity. Although it may seem like aggressive behavior, it’s simply an expression of frustration (or fear, depending on the cases). Leash reactivity usually starts when the dog sees another dog and has a strong desire to approach him; since he’s unable to do so, he becomes frustrated. As a result, the dog starts whining, pulling on the leash and may even bark at the other dog. The owner feels embarrassed and punishes the dog. After a few repetitions, the dog wishes to avoid other dogs at all costs, since he gets punished every time he sees one! Frustration has evolved into fear. At this point, the dog wants to get away from other dogs, but he feels trapped by the leash; henceforth, he may try to bite. This is the Flight or Fight response in action! Once you remove the leash from the equation, the reactive behavior vanishes, and the dog may even act very friendly and sociable.

Should you throw your dog’s leash away, then? Well, not at all. Leash reactivity is trainable, and you can improve your dog’s behavior by changing his emotional state. If you choose to treat the symptoms only, you’ll probably fail; one must address the root to be successful. First, remember never to punish your dog by barking, lunging or growling; it will only create more fear and frustration. If your dog is reacting because he’s frustrated for not being able to play with the other dogs, teach him self-control skills, by rewarding calm behaviors. If he sees another dog, ask him to sit or to look at you instead. If he does, even if it’s just for a second, reward him with high-value treats or his favorite toy. Increase the behavior’s duration, by rewarding him for longer periods of time. On the other hand, if he’s reacting because he’s scared of the other dog’s presence, you need to work with classical conditioning techniques only. As soon as your dog sees the other, offer him a steady flow of high-value treats. Keep doing so until the other dog leaves your dog’s sight, even if he’s acting hysterically. After enough repetitions, he’ll start to associate other dogs with treats and, as a result, the reactivity will decrease.

Q&A: How do I stop my dog from peeing in the house?

I have a 9-month-old corgi (Yuki) and she was well-potty trained when she was staying with my boyfriend. She pees and poops in a designated area and pees on command every time. She rarely goes out as she’s still a puppy so she mostly pees indoors. Recently, she has come to stay with me and my parents love her so much that they bring her to potty outside at least twice a day. Initially she would pee on command on the pee tray but gradually she has stopped listening to me. She would still pee at home but she wouldn’t pee in the pee tray anymore. She will either pee in her playpen or in the kitchen when nobody is looking. How can I re-train her to pee on the pee tray again? I want to maintain the habit that she poops outside but I also want her to know that if she ever feels the need to pee/poop, she still can do so at home but only on the pee tray. I have tried not bringing her out so that she will pee at home but she just held her pee till we bring her out in the night. Help! What should I do?~Jane

Hello Jane and Yuki! I am pretty sure I can help you here.

You must have trained Yuki by offering some sort of incentive for eliminating in the designated areas. Yuki eventually learned ‘If I relieve myself here, it makes my owner happy, or I will get something. If I go somewhere else outside of the designated area, I won’t be rewarded or my owner will become upset/won’t be happy.’ Hence, your Corgi would go out of her way for what she perceived as a reward.

This regular routine changed when she moved. Her environment changed. Her human ‘pack’ family members even changed. Many dogs develop anxiety due to drastic changes like this; you’re actually lucky this is the only issue!

Peeing in the playpen or kitchen: Your main problem is your dog peeing inside. You’ll have to go through potty training again, teaching her she is supposed to eliminate outside or in your ‘pee tray’, not anywhere she feels like. Don’t scold or chastise her, but keep constant supervision. This normally requires leashing your pup by your (or your parents) side so you are able to catch accidents 100% of the time, and running her outside every single time she begins to go indoors.

Set a regular, consistent bathroom schedule, and don’t alter it. When you can’t offer direct supervision, crate Yuki. Dogs will prefer not to eliminate in close confines or where they sleep. Yuki should probably begin sleeping in her crate during this potty training process.

If you want her to pee on the pee tray, you’re going to need to offer her incentive again; reward her when she does. Whenever she is about to pee, carry her directly to the pee tray. You can’t miss mistakes here, which will require her to be leashed by your side at all times.

Dogs will also prefer to eliminate in designated areas because they smell familiar. Even thorough cleanings don’t always mask the scent; change the bedding if possible.

To sum:
Offer Constant supervision
Reward desired behavior
Don’t reward mistakes, and don’t scold excessively either
Catch mistakes 100% of the time, correct by moving to desired location
Crate when you can’t have Yuki leashed by your side (if possible).
Set regular bathroom schedule; don’t deviate
Follow this advice, and I can all but guarantee your problem will resolve itself in time. With today’s busy schedules, I understand how it might seem difficult to offer constant supervision though.

Teach Your Dog to Heel in Three Easy Steps

Q&A: How to keep my dog from chasing cars when walking him?We’ve all seen the human and dog walking through the neighborhood that begs the question: who is walking whom? Either the dog is several feet ahead, excitedly straining at the leash as its owner frantically yells, “slow down!”, or the dog is lagging behind as the owner walks on, oblivious until the leash runs out of length and forces a stop.

A dog that strains at its leash or lags behind has not yet learned the all important “heel” command. While this behavior may seem cute in a curious puppy, it poses a great risk as dogs get older. Large breeds will be hard to physically control, while smaller breeds could become tangled under feet or in the extended leash length.

Ideally, a dog should walk next to its owner. A dog’s paws should be about even with the owner’s legs and feet, giving the dog room to explore visually while keeping him clearly within arm’s reach of the owner.

The good news is that whether you have a new puppy or a stubborn adult dog, you can teach your pet to heel! Teaching a dog to heel takes patience and confidence, but the reward of a relaxing and fun walk is well worth the investment!

Supplies Needed:
Basic Training Leash (not a retractable leash)
Your dog’s favorite treats
Safe, enclosed training space, such as a living room, garage, or back yard

Step One: Begin by placing the leash on the dog and commanding the dog to sit. Firmly hold the other end of the leash in your hand, and wrap the excess so the dog has enough length to comfortably move about 8 inches in front of you.

Command the dog to stand up. If he lunges forward or wanders around, have him sit again, and practice sitting / standing until he stands still and waits for the next command. Reward your dog once he’s mastered this step.

Step Two: Walk the dog in a large circle. If he steps forward, calmly call out, “Heel!” and stop walking. Plant your feet firmly on the ground and hold the leash. Gently tug on the leash to remind your dog to stay within reach and to call him back to you. Once the dog has mastered this, let the leash out a few more inches and practice again.

Step Three: Once your dog is comfortable walking beside you in a small space, move to a larger area and add some “distractions” – lawn chairs, stuffed animals, potted plants. Practice walking around these items while keeping the dog next to you. Remember, if your dog moves out of ideal position, call out, “Heel!”, go back a few steps, and try again.

Now that you’ve mastered this basic command, walks will be safer and much more enjoyable for the both of you. Head outdoors and enjoy the sights and sounds of your community with confidence!

How to Potty Train With Dog Doorbells

8184gGuSRwL._SL1500_Teaching a dog to ring a bell to go outside is a great command.  It opens up communication between the dog and owner.  It provides a way for the dog to communicate it’s needs.  Sometimes the dog will ring it to potty and sometimes it’ll ring the bell just to get fresh air.

I like the hanging bells the best.

So, how do you teach a dog to ring a bell to go outside?  First, you should already understand clicker basics.  Using a clicker or another marker will be necessary for teaching your dog.

It is paramount that you truly understand clicker training. I can not over emphasize this point enough.  The timing of the clicks is crucial and this is something that your average dog owner fails to comprehend.  A half a second off is too much.  You must be precise with your clicks.    Keep this in mind as you read the rest of the tutorial.

Assuming that you understand clicker training, take out your dog bells.  Before we start clicking, we want to desensitize the dog to the bells.  For some dogs, this step will only take a minute.  Other dogs may be more alarmed by the sound of the bells.

Either way, allow the dog to sniff it, paw at it etc……  Allow the dog to investigate it and get used to this new object.  During this process, keep a bait bag on you that is filled with high quality treats that are organic.

After you are satisfied that the dog is comfortable around the bell, that’s when the real training begins.  We want the dog to associate ringing the bell with getting a treat.

When a dog knows that you have treats, they will try anything.  They will nudge your hand, jump on you and eventually touch the bell.  When the dog touches the bell, click & treat.  Personally, I like to say:  “Bell” or “Good Bell” in a high pitched voice.

I wean the dog off of treats quickly.  I switch the reward to opening the door and letting the dog go outside.  Sometimes, I’ll give treats as soon as we go a few steps out of the door.

This is one of the few commands that has a really unique reward.  Going outside is amongst a dog’s favorite things to do.  Eventually, they will learn that ringing the bell is the “key” to going outside.

Some dogs will take advantage of this and ring the bell all the time.  However, if you know your dog doesn’t have to potty then it’s at your discretion.  The intermittent reward will not cause your dog to forget how to use the bell.

It sounds simple but really it is.  Place the bell on the door and wait for her to touch it or paw at it.  Remember, dogs will try anything to get to a treat.  Soon they will make a connection and say:  “oh, this is what my owner wants me to do!”  Eventually, they will have that “Ah Ha” moment.  Take advantage of that moment and build on it.

Most dog owners have this level of communication with their dogs.  It’s guaranteed to impress your friends!

How to Teach Your Dog to “Leave It”

dog-chewing-shoesI hate it when I have dog treats on me and a dog keeps nudging me physically for the treat.  Wouldn’t it be swell if there was a command for the dog to “leave it?”  Well, there is and as you probably guessed, it’s called the “Leave It” command.

“Leave it” is a very useful command.  What it teaches your dog is that if you “leave it” then you get it.  This is counter intuitive to a dog but I’ve never seen a dog not figure it out.

There are many ways to teach the leave it command.  In future articles, I’ll teach alternative methods for this command.  For now, let’s focus on the simplest way to teach the “leave it” command.

What I do, is present a treat to the dog.  I like to start with a low value treat and work my way up to a high value treat.  An example of a low value treat is kibble.  An example of a high value treat is steak.

I place the treat in a closed hand and wait for the dog to react.  They will do all kinds of things to get the treat.  Some examples include: nudging, pawing, licking my hand etc……

The moment that the dog resigns or looks away, I click and treat.  I recommend buying a high quality clicker for this.

When I click, I always say “leave it” or “good leave it.”  I never say things like “good girl.”  I always say things like “good leave it” or “good stay” or “good fetch” etc…..

I also use a chipper voice when the dog does something right.

Basically, you are conveying to the dog that “leaving it” means getting it.  Being pushy about it means that the treat will remain inaccessible.

To summarize:

  1. Present a treat in a closed fist. Alternatively, You can put a treat on the ground and cover it with your hand.
  1. Wait for the dog to do everything possible to get to that treat.
  1. Be Patient. Remain unfazed by the dog’s behavior and keep the treat covered until the dog leaves it alone.  This usually takes anywhere between 30 seconds and 7 minutes.
  1. Click and treat at the moment the dog leaves the treat alone. The second after you click, say: “good leave it” or “leave it”…. eventually, you’ll say “leave it” before they look away.  At the beginning, we just want the dog to associate the command with the action.

After the 4 steps are down, you can expand the lesson.  You can experiment with lengths of time, types of treats etc….  The most important thing is to set your dog up for success.  Know their limits and what they can achieve.  Success comes in increments.  Don’t rush your dog.  Guide your dog and make learning fun!

Dog Agility Training – Teaching the Proper Jump

Acd_agilityMany people are interested in dog agility training.  However, they don’t know where to start.  Let’s start with how to teach a dog to properly jump.  For the sake of this article, we’ll be using a 24” height dog as an example.

If you are going to be doing this from home then you’ll need 3 – 5 jumps.  The jumps can be made with PVC.  They are cheap.  Just doing a web search for dog agility equipment.  They are easy to find.

A dog’s stride is 3 times her jump height.  So, a 24 inch dog has a stride of 72 inches.  A 20 inch height dog has a stride of sixty inches.  You’ll want 2 strides between jumps.  So, a 24 inch height dog will need the jumps 144”  or 12 feet apart.  A 20 inch cutie needs jumps 120” or 10 feet apart.

The front paws leave the ground, the back feet push off the legs tuck up and under as the back arcs and head drops.  This allows the dog to land with the front paws at almost  the same time, at least 24 inches past the jump and the back legs untuck and land last.

The takes a lot of pressure off of the front legs and helps prevent knocked bars and protesting on the dog’s part.

When you start training, the jumps should be no higher than elbow height.  Also make sure that the bar is on the landing side.  This way, it will fall of easily if the doggy hits it.

Have your dog in a “stay” position while she is 12 feet away from jump #1.  Then, walk to the end of the jumps.  Now, give your dog a “come” command and before they reach each jump, say “JUMP” or “HUP” or whatever command you’ve chosen.  When the dog reaches you, give an extreme amount of praise.  Your dog worked very hard.  This is a physical and mental workout for a dog.

Sometimes dogs need to start with 1 jump.  Some can handle 2 or 3 jumps in the beginning.  Every dog is different.  Not every dog was born to be a champion agility winner.

Many owners say the “come” command when they are at the end of the agility area.  In other words, the dog is running towards the owner.

Advanced handlers can send the dog out.  This means that they stand at the beginning and send the dog out to jump over the bars.

If you are a newbie, I wouldn’t raise the bar more than one inch per week.  You want to set the dog up for success.  You don’t want to risk injury and disappointment.  The process should take weeks and months.  It shouldn’t be rushed in days.  Some dogs thrown themselves over when not trained properly.  This can injure the dogs.  The best thing is to find an agility trainer in your area.